Winter Spreading and Biosolids

Sewage Biosolids

Sewage biosolids are a nutrient-rich residue classified as a non-agricultural source material that can be applied to farmland as a soil builder or fertilizer, to promote healthy soils and healthy plants. Biosolids are used similarly as animal manure to help build organic matter, nutrients, microbial activity and micronutrients to soil.

In Ontario, spreading sewage biosolids on farmland during the winter months is prohibited. The spreading must adhere to the Nutrient Management Regulations that state biosolids cannot be spread from December 1 to March 31 of any year. In addition, biosolids cannot be spread on snow-covered or frozen ground regardless of the dates stated.

The Ontario government has good reason for putting these rules in place, as the number one priority of the regulation is to enhance the natural environment and provide a sustainable future for agricultural operations. Here at Wessuc, we also believe that protecting the environment is a priority, and we work hard to ensure that we follow the regulation and use best management practices for determining suitable field conditions for spreading throughout the year.

Spreading biosolids on snow-covered or frozen ground can increase the risk of run-off of biosolids into sensitive areas. This happens because biosolids cannot penetrate the frozen ground, and instead of entering the soil, they can wash off the field into surface water such as; ditches, streams, or ponds.

Run-off of nutrients into ditches, streams, ponds and non-agricultural areas can create adverse effects on humans, wildlife, aquatic life and the natural ecosystems. The two most common nutrients that can negatively impact non-agricultural land is nitrogen and phosphorus. In particular, phosphorus can accelerate eutrophication in our lakes and streams, resulting in the pollution of water through excessive algae growth which depletes oxygen and sunlight.

Furthermore, spreading of biosolids or any other nutrient on snow-covered or frozen land also does not have a benefit to the farmer. The number one reason why manures and biosolids are used on farm fields is because they help to increase the health of the soil. By adding nutrients to the soil, we can help to build healthy soils to grow crops. But, spreading fertilizers, manures, or NASM in the winter results in a significant loss of the applied nutrients to the environment by run-off, evaporation and wind erosion. As a result, farmers would have to apply more nutrients to their farm field to account for the loss of nutrients in the winter, which can be expensive and time consuming. The best time to capture the most nutrients possible for the soil is directly before planting or while there is a standing crop in the field. For this reason, farmers apply the majority of their nutrients during the spring before planting or after the crop has been planted.

People don’t stop going to the bathroom in the winter months.

Although spreading sewage biosolids in the winter is prohibited, we still need ways of managing the biosolids through the winter months. The main ways that we deal with this problem is by creating large storage sites, or lagoons to hold the excess material until the land is suitable for spreading. Every municipality handles their sewage biosolid storages differently. Some materials are stored as a liquid in large storage tanks, some are stored in outdoor lagoons, and some are dewatered and stored as solid materials in storage facilities.

Spreading of other nutrient in Winter

Sewage biosolids are the most heavily restricted materials in the Nutrient Management Act. It is designed this way because sewage biosolids contain human body waste, which can contain E. coli, and other pathogens that animal manures do not contain.

This means that all nutrients (fertilizers, manures or NASM materials) are created equally. Spreading of some NASM materials is permitted during the winter months, provided that they follow other sets of rules within the regulation, or follow best management practices. One of the reasons why nutrients may be spread during the winter is because storages are full due to unforeseen circumstances.

Contingency Plans

The storage of biosolids, other NASM, and manures is a common practice in Ontario. All new agricultural operations that have livestock must have a plan to manage their nutrients in the winter months. There are also similar regulations for any municipality or city that manages sewage biosolids under the Ministry of Environment.

But, sometimes the weather can cause problems for farmers, which makes it hard to distribute manures or NASMs in the dry months and storages may not have the capacity to hold the amount of material produced.

Some NASM materials (not including sewage biosolids) and manures can be spread on farm land during the winter months. In most cases, this is a last resort for farmers who have run out of storage space on their farms due to weather or other unforeseen circumstances. These farms should always be following the Nutrient Management Act and Best Management Practices when dealing with these situations.

as per the Nutrient Management Act, O. Reg 267/03 2002

Snow covered ground:
when used in reference to soil, means that a layer of snow with an average minimum depth of five centimeters.
Frozen ground:
when used in reference to soil, means that a layer of soil with an average minimum depth of five centimeters, located within the top 15 centimeters of the soil, is consolidated by the presence of frozen moisture.
Non- Agricultural Source Material
Best Management Practices:
A practical, affordable approach to conserving a farm’s soil and water resources without sacrificing productivity.

Hurry up and get spreading before December 1! Check out our land application services and download the Biosolids Audit to determine your best solution.

Types of Confined Spaces and their Hazards

Confined spaces are not like any other ordinary workplace, and being within them can cause injuries and fatalities. The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety notes that precautions must be made to make confined spaces safe before workers enter. For the workers who brave the hazardous conditions of confined spaces, it’s vital to know just what sort of risks could be faced.

What are confined spaces?

A confined space is any enclosed space that carries with it a risk of death or serious injury from dangerous conditions or hazardous materials. These are areas that are not designed or purposed for human occupancy. Confined spaces generally have restricted entrances and exits, and despite their name, they’re not necessarily small.

Types of confined spaces

Confined spaces can exist both above and below ground. Some examples of confined spaces include:

  • Storage tanks and digesters
  • Sewers
  • Silos
  • Vats
  • Pipes
  • Wells
  • Tunnels
  • Ship holds
  • Subcellars
  • Cold storage rooms
  • Ducts
  • Access shafts
  • Manholes

A full list is difficult to provide, because some spaces that you may not consider hazardous can become confined spaces when work is being carried out within them, or during construction. Depending on the particular environment of a confined space, workers may be faced with one or a combination of hazards.

Lack of oxygen

Certain soils can react with oxygen in the air, thereby reducing the amount of oxygen available for workers operating within the confined space. Groundwater mixed with chalk and limestone can also produce carbon dioxide and displace breathable air.

Within the hold of a ship or a freight container, the cargo on board can react with air inside the space and reduce the amount of oxygen. Rust that forms within steel containers and tanks can also impact the amount of clean air available for workers.

Hazardous gases

Dangerous gases, fumes, and vapour can build up within sewers and manholes because of the variety of contaminants present. Pipework that contains these contaminants can also move poisonous gases into connected tanks or vessels. Gases may also leak into ditches and pits from contaminated land such as landfills and oil fields.

Welding activities or the use of volatile solvents and adhesives can also emit dangerous gases into a confined space. Sometimes the residue from previously-used products will emit vapours as well.

Solids and liquids

Substances that can suddenly fill a confined space pose a risk to workers within. Solids that are free-flowing, like grain or flour, can sometimes partially solidify. When that happens, a blockage is formed that could collapse unexpectedly.

Heat and fire

Confined spaces may not have adequate ventilation, which can lead to heat buildup within the space, and dangerous increases in body temperature for workers. Sometimes increases in temperature may be the result of work being carried out within the space. Flammable materials and vapours that exist within some confined spaces also poses the risk of fire and explosions.

The hazards facing workers within confined spaces are real, and that’s why it’s important for employers to understand and mitigate the risks involved. That allows employers to get the best from their workers, while giving workers the ability to do their jobs safely.

Wessuc plans out each confined space entry to ensure the work is completed in the safest manner possible. All crew members receive the necessary confined space training which enables us to react quickly to any circumstances that may arise during a clean out project.

Contact us at to learn more about our trained professionals and how we can help you.

Biosolids Management : A Global Perspective

What better way to learn about biosolids management then to compare our processes and procedures at home to those abroad?

Europe provides an excellent example of biosolids management tactics that are creating results that better the environment and the economy. In fact, the European Union (EU) has committed to treating biosolids as a valuable resource, rather than a burden, as a requirement of long-term sustainability. The EU encourages the use of biosolids for both energy and land application. Currently more than half of the biosolids produced in the EU are used on farmlands. Some of the most active European participants in biosolids management include France, Portugal, Belgium, Italy and Denmark.

In Europe, biosolids are encouraged to be used in the following ways:

  • Agricultural cropland application
  • Commercial sale as fertilizer for horticultural landscaping applications
  • Rangeland and pasture application to improve available grazing
  • Land application in reforested areas

European Union Regulation

In 1986 the EU regulated the use of biosolids for the first time after it was already widely used among agricultural practice in many countries. This regulation set a maximum value of concentrations of heavy metals and bans the spreading of biosolids when the concentration of certain substances in the soil exceeds these values. It also requires Member States to keep records of biosolids use on the following subjects:

  • Quantities of biosolids produced and the quantities supplied for the use in agriculture
  • The composition and properties of the biosolids
  • The types of treatments being carried out
  • The names and locations of recipients of land application

Member States must produce a consolidated report every four years to be published by the Commission, who will, if necessary, submit appropriate proposals for any increased protection of the soil and environment. Other relevant legislative materials include the urban wastewater treatment directive, nitrates directive, water framework directive and the hazardous substances regulations. The quantity and composition of biosolids across Europe have been impacted by these precautionary measures.

By providing a variety of laws and rules that regulate the biosolids management industry, the European Union has been able promote the use of biosolids in a safe and environmentally sustainable way. By constantly updating these regulations based on further scientific discovery and amount of sewage sludge being produced, Europe has been able to successfully minimize sludge in landfills and maximize the use of biosolids in a variety of forms.

In Canada, specifically Ontario, we are still years away from managing and regulating biosolids the same as the European Union. To learn more about Ontario’s ‘Waste Free’ Initiative, check out this blog post or contact us to learn more about your options. The European Union is leading the way and Ontario isn’t far behind.